In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
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The English word All and its potential root in a Norse Version of "Allah"

Barry Grossman
The Norwegian translation of "all" is "alle," pronounced "ullah" and is typically preceded by an "i" pronounce "ee" for an expression essentially identical to "ilāh."
The etymology of the English word "all" from the Old English words "eal" is said to be Proto-Germanic with no known outside influences yet when we consider the word's meaning and sound, it certainly brings to mind the sound and meaning of the Arabic words "Allāh" and "ilāh," albeit completely denuded of their essential meaning.

"All" - Old English eall "all, every, entire," from Proto-Germanic *alnaz (cognates: Old Frisian, Old High German al, Old Norse allr, Gothic alls), with no certain connection outside Germanic.

Combinations with all meaning "wholly, without limit" were common in Old English (such as eall-halig "all-holy," eall-mihtig "all-mighty") and the method continued to form new compound words throughout the history of English.

Of course by Proto-Germanic, etymologists include the language of the Norseman and the world "all" also has its historic roots in the Dutch, the language of a nation which sat uncomfortably between Mainland Germans and the Norseman. The Norwegian translation of "all" is "alle," pronounced "ullah" and is typically preceded by an "i" pronounce "ee" for an expression essentially identical to "ilāh."

It is widely accepted that there was a considerable amount of interchange between the Norseman and the Muslim world. In 'Cultural Atlas of the Viking world' James Graham-Campbell writes: 

'Though their settlements in Russia became one of the most enduring legacies of the Viking Age, the Scandinavians are unlikely to have had colonisation in mind when they set out along the river systems of eastern Europe. Their aim was always to reach Byzantium, the city founded by the emperor Constantine in Ad 330. By the Viking Age it spanned the Bosphorus in a masssive conurbation that would have been easily the biggest settlement the Scandinavians had ever seen. 

Byzantium was attractive to the Scandinavians for several reasons. First and foremost it was a conduit for trade and for the wealth that went with it. Into the city poured goods from the eastern Mediterranean and north AFrica, and from the great expanse of Asia. here the Vikings could obtain silk and embroideries, exotic fruits and wines, spices and fine jewellery. Evidence of this trade has been found in abundance in Scandinavia and throughout the Viking world. for example, textiles from Byzantium have been discovered as far away as England. 

The Byzantines recognised the fighting qualities of the Vikings early on, and by the late 10th century the emperor's personal guard was composed entirely of Scandinavian mercenaries. 
While some Swedes made the journey south from Straya Ladoga into Russia and down to the Black Sea, others followed an even more ambitious route directly east to the land of the Bulgar tribes, the Khazar nomads and finally to the deserts of Arabia and the seat of the Abbasid caliph at Baghdad. After Lake Ladoga these voyagers joined the upper waters of the river Volga, passing through settlements at Beloozero, jaraslavl, Vladimir and Murom:Scandinavian artifacts have been found at all of these. The Scandinavians may have travelled as family groups rather than lone merchant expeditions, judging by the number of women's graves that have been found along the route: there is also no reason to rule out the possible presence of female merchants. The Volga makes a great bend at Bulgar as it turns south to the Caspian Sea. This marked the western end of the Silk road, the overland trade route that ran through Samarkand and Tashkent to China, and here a great market place had developed controlled by the Bulgar tribes We know the Scandinavian merchants must have encountered the caravanst that traveled the Silk Road because Chinese silks have been found in graves at Birka in central Sweden. These finds, together with the figure of Buddha that has been found at the pre-Viking site at Helgo may even allow us to speculate on the extraordinary possibility that Scandinavans themselves may have journeyed all the way to the Chinese court or the Indian subcontinent. 

Bulgar was the first of the markets at which the Scandinavians encountered the massive silver supplies of the Arab world. The Volga trade may have begun as early as the late 8th century with agreements between the Abbasid caliphate and the Khazar tribes of the lower Volga. By the beginning of the Viking Age, Baghdad had grown massively, thriving on the huge silver reserves of the caliphate's dominions. 

The Vikings seem to have begun to tap the Arab silver sources in the early 9th century, acquiring coins that had been minted a couple of decades earlier. It became their main precious metal, and their appetite for it was enormous. Over 60,000 Arab coins have been found in over 1,000 hoards in Scandinavia alone, with many others in the Viking colonies. It is clear that only a tiny proportion of the silver imported as coins was kept as such:most was melted down and recast as bullion or jewellery. The Vikings bought the silver with similar items to those they traded at Byzantium - furs, slaves, falcons, honey. wax, walrus ivory and strong steel swords.' Also see:

Vision Without Glasses


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