In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Grande Strategy

Strategy in the Quran

Meinhaj Hussain,

Download PDF version here

Guidance over Secularism
Military Strategy & Tactics 
Technologies we should pursue 
Spiritual Aspects for the Soldier
Nature of Muslims
Nature of the Enemy



Bismillaharrahmanarraheem. The Purpose of this study is to derive strategy and important lessons from the Quran. At a time when virtually all military textbooks taught at various war colleges and virtually most strategy related literature taught in no-military academic institutions in purportedly “Muslim” countries draw nearly exclusively on non-Islamic sources, it is of vital import that we go back to the Quran and Sunnah to find lessons that are applicable to the world of strategy. Islam is a complete way of life and the guidance in the Quran transcends time and speaks to us of everything in our lives. There is no reason why it should not also speak to us about strategy.

We have heard what Machiavelli, Sun Tzu and Clausewitz. Let us now look at what the Quran has to say on the subject. This being said, I want to make clear to the reader that I do not consider myself well qualified to pass interpretations of the Quran related to such topics. I neither have adequate mastery of the Arabic language nor am I qualified in any other way as an Islamic scholar. I also do not have any formal degree in the Military Sciences. Nevertheless, since our scholars are not apparently interested in this subject matter and there seems nobody else to take up the task, I have taken it upon myself to do the best I can, Insh’Allah.
If the reader finds any mistakes or errors, please do not hesitate contacting me and it shall insh’Allah be corrected. Further, if you find other verses are of relevance - again, please do not hesitate contacting me or leaving a comment. I consider this writing a work-in-progress and open to positive and negative input from the Muslim community at large.

The structure of the work is that it tends to begin with a topic and is followed by a quote of a Quranic ayat or ayats, as translated in English by Yusuf Ali. Where the quote is not from Yusuf Ali’s translation, it is mentioned so. This is followed by a commentary (where necessary) of how I linked this ayat to the topic at hand. I have tried to keep the structure and content as simple as possible, so as to be easy to thumb through for the common man.

May Allah forgive me if I am wrong and may He bless me that I can do this work effectively, despite my shortcomings. This is but my best attempt, and Allah-o-Alim (Allah knows best).

Meinhaj Hussain
13th Rajab, 1432 Hijri

Guidance over Secularism

This section is sparse, brief and general and is largely to set the stage for us to understand the importance of revelation and of our Creator vis-à-vis the topic at hand.

The Importance of Guidance from the Quran
These depend on guidance from their Lord. These are the successful. (2:5)

To be successful today, we need to stop borrowing every idea from the West and seek to find guidance in all matters from Islam; from the Quran and the Sunnah.

The Quran Explains All Things:

One day We shall raise from all Peoples a witness against them, from amongst themselves: and We shall bring thee as a witness against these (thy people): and We have sent down to thee the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims. (16:89)

Those not Living by the Law of Allah are Kafirun

It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah.s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah.s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers. (5:44)

The similitude of those who were charged with the (obligations of the) Mosaic Law, but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey which carries huge tomes (but understands them not). Evil is the similitude of people who falsify the Signs of Allah. And Allah guides not people who do wrong. (62:5)

Divine Help

Help with powerful help

And that Allah may help thee with powerful help. (48:03)

Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala will aid us if we seek his help and are sincere in our efforts. In a world where we are trying to shelter under the US, China or some other power and even our intellect is borrowed from somewhere else, it seems that we have forgotten who we are really supposed to rely on.

Different kinds of help:

When He made the slumber fall upon you as a reassurance from him and sent down water from the sky upon you, that thereby He might purify you, and remove from you the fear of Satan, and make strong your hearts and firm (your) feet thereby. (8:11)

When help and victory comes, people will accept Islam in crowds

When, comes the Help of Allah, and Victory, (1) And thou dost see the People enter Allah's Religion in crowds, (2) Celebrate the Praises of thy Lord, and pray for His Forgiveness: for He is Oft-Returning (in Grace and Mercy). (3) (110:1-3)


Allah ta’ala will grant us victory, defeat and victory are in His hands. Perhaps we are closer to shirk when we take the protection of non-Muslim if not outright rabidly anti-Islamic nations such as the United States. Now we have the case today were a certain people from a certain country that is a close ally of the United States and is instrumental in allowing US Dollar supremacy in the world currency markets because they monopolize certain precious commodities and would not sell those commodities in other currencies. Then these same people will turn around and lecture everyone else on shirk.

Military Strategy & Tactics     

Suicide is to be avoided
O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful. (4:29)
Suicide is not a valid tactic and the Prophet (peace be upon him) never used it to attack Makkah. We are forbidden to attack women and children. In the Battle of Uhud when Muslims “gave their lives” in situations where they knew that they will not win or live, we were still in a conventional war setting and the enemy still had to actually kill us (we did not stab ourselves).
If you wish to listen to “scholars” who say otherwise or that Israel or the US is somehow different, know this – in the Day of Judgment they will not be responsible for your souls. You will be. Do you wish to take the chance that they are wrong? Moreover, if you follow them without thinking yourself, are you worshipping Allah or these scholars? Allah (swt) has made this life a test for us. Do you think you can finish this test and pass it by pressing a button? It is against Islam for a Muslim to be desperate, for Allah, the Most High, can never be defeated.

Advance Proven Units First / Advance Together / Take Precaution Before Maneuver

O ye who believe! Take your precautions, then advance the proven ones, or advance all together. (4:71)

March / Go forth
Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons in the Cause of Allah. That is best for you if ye (but knew). (9:41)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) and the sahaba have spent a good deal of time in war marching. Perhaps marching must be considered an integral and important part of war and preparing for war. It is a duty upon all Muslims to stay physically fit for jihad.

March by night when pursued.
(The reply came): "March forth with My servants by night: for ye are sure to be pursued. (44:23)
In the event of being pursued, we must march by night to outrange our enemies, rather than sleep / take rest and put ourselves at risk of being caught. Marching all night can sound difficult but should be significantly easier if we Muslims master the art of tahajud prayers at night.

Importance of monitoring / seeing  over hiding
Say: "Who is the Lord and Sustainer of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "(It is) Allah." Say: "Do ye then take (for worship) protectors other than Him, such as have no power either for good or for harm to themselves?" Say: "Are the blind equal with those who see? Or the depths of darkness equal with Light?" Or do they assign to Allah partners who have created (anything) as He has created, so that the creation seemed to them similar? Say: "Allah is the Creator of all things: He is the One, the Supreme and Irresistible." (13:16)
The blind are not equal to those that see. In various strategic options open to militaries, some are seeking the strategic choice of hiding over observing while others the opposite. In military aviation, the United States has invested heavily in 5th generation stealth fighters through the Lockheed Martin F-22 “Raptor”. Russia has taken a different approach and her 5th generation PAKFA is less stealthy has five or more radar panels including large low-frequency radars located on the wings, particularly suited to target stealth aircraft. Within the spectrum of choices, perhaps it would be better for us to focus on anti-stealth over stealth technologies. This does not mean that we ignore stealth technology, but merely regarding the strategic balance between the two.
In fact, it can be argued that stealth technology allows us to “blind” our enemies and thus are a critical and important technology for us to consider. This verse, interpreted in such a manner could also suggest that we should not underestimate the importance of winning the technology battle in this sphere, whether through stealth or through anti-stealth or the best possible combination of the two.

Loss of communication in retreat
Truly thou canst not cause the Dead to listen, nor canst thou cause the Deaf to hear the call (especially) when they turn back in retreat. (27:80)
The ayaat compares the loss of communication during retreat with the futile attempt to make the dead to listen. When an enemy is in retreat, the disarray to communication is an important element that we must be mindful of. Similarly, we must take special care to ensure orderly retreat during our own withdrawals.

Make ready for war all you can
Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of Allah and your enemies and others besides whom ye may not know but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly. (8:60)
In this ayat, Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala calls us to be vigilant and ready for war to the utmost of our power including steads of war. Allah o alim, but this can also possibly imply that we focus on total war over limited war. The latter may be taken to imply that we invest a limited force to fight limited wars, while striving for the utmost of our military capacities looks to focus on total war.

10:1 superiority in war 2:1 in weakness
O Prophet! Rouse the Believers to the fight. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are a people without understanding.
For the present, Allah hath lightened your (task), for He knoweth that there is a weak spot in you: but (even so), if there are a hundred of you patient and persevering they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they will vanquish two thousand, with the leave of Allah: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. (8:65-66)
Of a truth ye are stronger (than they) because of the terror in their hearts, (sent) by Allah. This is because they are men devoid of understanding. (59:13)

If we correctly follow Islam and if our soldiers spend time both in their physical and spiritual development (see section on spiritual aspects of the soldier), this is the kind of advantage Muslim soldiers should be able to achieve against the kuffar. But we must be people of understanding rather than people devoid of understanding.
Yet, today we are the people devoid of understanding. We are filled with people who have memorized the Quran but are unable to understand it or to apply it to their lives. We are people who blindly follow our religion because we are born to it but do not understand why our religion is meaningful and true.
We are people devoid of understanding because we force your young children to not question and inquire, but to memorize, regurgitate and obey. We are people who do not ponder over the purpose of the various laws and commands in Islam but stick to the only interpretations hundreds of years ago. We are people who shun innovation because we consider all innovations as bida without understanding the dynamic and everlasting nature of Islam which can provide us answers for every generation. We are people devoid of understanding who have forgotten the civility of an argument. We are people devoid of understanding because we follow madhabs and scholars as if these were sent by Allah and elevate these to a level of blind following that brings new dimensions to the idea of shirk.

Fight collectively
The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)― so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred; that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein and fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. (9:36)
Fight collectively and not individually and separately. Fight not as small groups of irregular unconventional forces, Allah-o-Alim but that would not be fighting all together. Fight together as an entire people, as a community, as one people. Further, all together also implies war involving all parts of the community and not just the armed forces. Many national armies in the Muslim world see their war preparations as a military affair. This is not correct and we must look to mobilize the entire people rather than the military institution.

Ranks strong repelling evil
By those who range themselves in ranks. (1) And so are strong in repelling (evil) (37:1-2)
Ranks imply organization, discipline, order and structure. The verse touches upon the importance of these factors. We are called to fight in ranks and not in a haphazard fashion. The need for order and discipline as a key component of an effective fighting force is well documented. We must not undervalue this component. Most Muslim armies particularly in the Middle East lack discipline, solid organization and the ability to stick to those in times of conflict. We held our discipline at Badr, we held to our lines and our ranks. In comparison, we disobeyed the Prophet (peace be upon him) and broke ranks in Uhud. The results are for all to see, whether then or now. Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala defines the level of organization and cohesion as a solid cemented structure:

Solid Cemented Structure:
Truly Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure. (61:4)
How is it that we today disagree?

Endurance: Patience and Constancy
O ye who believe! Persevere in patience and constancy: vie in such perseverance; strengthen each other; and fear Allah; that ye may prosper. (3:200)
Patience and constancy are spoken of here and in other places such as surah Al-Asr. The elements that are connected to superior patience and constancy are competing and encouraging each other in these and to fear Allah.

Importance of Discipline

When Talut set forth with the armies, he said: "Allah will test you at the stream; if any drinks of its water, he goes not with my army; only those who taste not of it go with me; a mere sip out of the hand is excused.―" But they drank of it, except a few. When they crossed the river― he and the faithful ones with him they said: "This day we cannot cope with Goliath and his forces." But those who were convinced that they must meet Allah, said: "How oft, by Allah's will, hath a small force vanquished a big one? Allah is with those who steadfastly persevere." (2:249)

O ye who believe! Persevere in patience and constancy: vie in such perseverance; strengthen each other; and fear Allah; that ye may prosper. (3:200)

Talut's account and the examples of the Prophet's own military campaigns indicate the importance of discipline key components of which are patience and constancy. After Uhud and during the Khyber campaign, the Prophet preferred to take a smaller military force of about 1,500 rather than having soldiers who would disobey commands and who were more inclined to war for the sake of booty. Thus, those who would only take a sip out of the hand from Talut's army had an orientation to fight quite different from those who did not have the discipline to hold themselves and were really part of the battle for worldly reasons.

It is therefore not unsurprising that a small force like Hizbullah were able to hold up against the Israeli military while far larger and far better equipped forces of the Arabs are unable. A mistake that Gulf nations and even the United States is making in this regard is in utilizing mercenaries, a sure disaster because of the completely different orientation of such forces. Such forces will not only harm the army for the reasons as described, but will also cause harm by impacting the organization culture of the army they become attached to.

Importance of Discipline and the Help of Allah:
O ye who believe! When ye are told to make room in the assemblies, (spread out and) make room: (ample) room will Allah provide for you. And when ye are told to rise up, rise up Allah will rise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted (mystic) Knowledge. And Allah is well- acquainted with all ye do. (58:11)
The question of discipline and obedience to the leader in these verses bring an additional dimension: that those of us who are obedient will not only find this as an organizational advantage, but will find additional help from Allah, who will expand their knowledge.

Repel evil with what is better (Positive Asymmetry):
Nor can Goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! (41:34)
The idea of repelling (evil) with what is better can be (Allah o Alim) thought of as a key idea of strategy. Within it, there are two aspects:
1.      Asymmetry: Like is not countered with like but with something that is different
2.      Better: The chosen response has to be better, which is open to interpretation of course.
Now, Muslims are known today for asymmetric warfare: say in guerilla warfare we attempt to counter the West and her allies by asymmetric methods such as ambush, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and some supposed “Muslims” even go to the extent of justifying terror attacks. But this remains an asymmetric response that is not, generally, “better”. It is a “negative” asymmetric method.

While, on the other hand, we have conventional standing armies that are at least ostensibly Muslim armies who know no other answer than to copy what the West is doing or respond symmetrically to military threats. For instance, to counter India’s provocative procurements of a large number of modern 4th Generation combat aircraft, Pakistan will attempt to increase the same category of jets in its inventory to whatever level it can. Purchase of AEW assets have been matched by an equivalent purchase. Nuclear tests were responded to with equivalent nuclear tests as were ballistic missile tests. If India buys tanks, Pakistan too must have more of the same. Meanwhile, this symmetry is increasingly impractical because of differing size and economic development between the two countries.

What we must not do is leave the method of warfare that the Prophet (peace be upon him) adopted. Every single battle he fought was a conventional battle. No matter how evil and oppressive the Quraish, he never attempted to have any of them assassinated or to conduct “Martyrdom operations” of the kind we see today. Instead, Muslims fought innovatively within conventional warfare. Khalid bin Walid’s mastery and employment of light cavalry and of many interesting and innovative tactics and strategies employed is a shining example.

If we are to follow this pattern, we need to find innovative solutions to our conventional military paradigm by pursuing a general strategy of “positive asymmetry”. 

Nature as stratagem:
And among His Signs are the ships smooth-running through the ocean, (tall) as mountains. (42:32)
In our strategies, we must not forget the importance of the surrounding environment. Too often do higher command officers, sitting outside the theatre of operations ignore the importance of the natural environment. Sunlight, wind, temperature, climate, topography, eco-systems, rivers and ravines, all play a critical role that those who are not on the front lines tend to lose the appreciation of. It may be that the Americans have found these very elements to their detriment far greater than AK-47s, RPG-7s and IEDs both in Iraq and Afghanistan. It may be that their thermal sights, otherwise able to pick up enemy combatants with ease, did not work properly in certain conditions particularly in Afghanistan.

Smoke as punishment:
Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke (or mist) plainly visible. (10) Enveloping the people: this will be a Penalty grievous. (44:10-11)
A form of smoke or mist is mentioned here as a penalty grievous. Although this verse is connected to the End of Days, it may also prove that the utilization of smoke and other blinding devices should be considered as a part and parcel of war.

Age of full strength 40 years:
We have enjoined on man Kindness to his parents: in pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth. The carrying of the (child) to his weaning is (a period of) thirty months. At length, when he reaches the age of full strength and attains forty years, he says "O my Lord! Grant me that I may be grateful for Thy favour which Thou hast bestowed upon me, and upon both my parents, and that I may work righteousness such as Thou mayest approve; and be gracious to me in my issue. Truly have I turned to Thee and truly do I bow (to Thee) in Islam." (46:15)
The age of forty is to be considered the pinnacle of physical and mental prowess. Rather than considering those reaching such age as past their physical prime, we need to reorient military training to keep officers fit and ready for field operations up to at least 50 years of age, considering that if the peak is naturally 40 years.

Smite their necks. Neck connected to main sensors and brain. Target C4I:
Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; at length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): therefore (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been Allah's Will, he could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the way of Allah he will never let their deeds be lost. (47:4)

Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): "I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them." (8:12)

This ayaat is a key strategy element in dealing with military forces and directly gives us military advice on dealing with the enemy. Consider the following transformation in translating this advice to modern warfare:
Neck – Communication link to head which can be considered as the C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence)
Finger tips / Finger – The vehicle that carries the weapon and employs it. For instance, an aircraft carrier would be employing aircraft that would essentially be the weapon. The essential differentiator is that the fingers are not themselves threats but the employ the weapon which cause the destruction. Other examples would be air bases, naval bases, transports, etc.

Clearly, it should be a key stratagem of war for us to target enemy C4I rather than focusing exclusively on directly targeting the enemy in combat, or focusing on the fingers that hold the weapons of war. When resources are scarce, we must still be willing to allocate resources to cut off communication, or make attacks at enemy bases and power projection instruments.

Attack “Gates”
(But) among (their) God-fearing men were two on whom Allah had bestowed His grace: they said: "Assault them at the (proper) Gate: when once ye are in, victory will be yours. but on Allah put your trust if ye have faith." (5:23)

Allah knows best, perhaps gates can imply entry and exit points for the enemy, as well as their communication lines. It would also imply targeting the central nodes of the enemy, similar to the last explanation of targeting the bases, thus an emphasis on the strategic objectives.

If we aid Him, He will aid us. Plant your feet firmly:
O ye who believe! if ye will aid (the cause of) Allah, He will aid you, and plant your feet firmly. (47:7)
The first issue relates to the help that Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala promises to aid us if we aid Him; That we will get substantive and real help from Him. What other guarantor do Muslim armies need?
The second part – plant your feet firmly relates to having a firm war footing – which can be translated to being properly dug in, well-placed in terms of internal logistics lines, making maximum use of topographic features and weighing in favor of a posture suited to stand and fight rather than fight and flee.

Winds that scatter (broadcast):
By the (Winds) that scatter broadcast; (51:1)


We need to consider wind as an element in warfare. This is often ignored but is of vital import particularly in naval and aviation affairs.

Seize by the right hand and cut off artery
We should certainly seize him by his right hand, (45) And We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart: (46) Nor could any of you withhold him (from Our wrath). (69:45)

The author is not certain how to utilize this verse and leaves it up to the reader. The verse is still kept here as the author feels he may be missing a deeper understanding.

Night conceals – ambush, defense

By the Night as it conceals (the light); (92:1)
The night is explained as having the characteristic of concealment. This can perhaps be utilized in ambush and in defense.

Day, glory, good for big (great, final, decisive offensive)
By the Day as it appears in glory; (92:2)

The Day is explained as one connected with glory and one that is therefore ideal for the great, final, decisive offensive.

Pen use, taught of what he knows not (importance of making written and detailed plans):
He Who taught (the use of) the Pen― (4) Taught man that which he knew not. (96: 4-5)

We must make detailed written plans. The pen is a key instrument that increases our learning. When one sets about writing about an issue, it is always that the knowledge of the writer increases after having written on the subject than before it, even if the raw data has not changed.

By the (Steeds) that run, with panting (breath), (1) And strike sparks of fire, (2) And push home the charge in the morning, (3) And raise the dust in clouds the while, (4) And penetrate forthwith into the midst (of the foe) en masse― (100: 1-5)


Cavalry is a key element in battle and has been a foremost instrument in Muslim armies. Some key clues to the use of cavalry in this ayaat are as follows:

1.      Run at speed (importance of speed and mobility)
2.      Push home charge in morning (see 92:2, importance of Day)
3.      Dust conceals (see the ayaat on smoke)
4.      En mass, key cavalry tactic

Today, Muslim cavalry is a blind and rigid force, built on copy-pasting wholesale concepts from the West and one that itself is poorly copied and applied. We need to reinvent what we understand by the term cavalry and how we utilize it. See this author’s other work Modern Muslim Light Cavalry for one possible way forward.

Utilization of air assault:
Seest thou not how thy Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant? (1) Did He not make their treacherous plan go astray? (2) And He sent against them flights of Birds, (3) Striking them with stones of baked clay. (4) Then did He make them like an empty field of stalks and straw, (of which the corn) has been eaten up. (105:1-5)


During the time of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) grandfather Abdul Muttalib, Abraha, a ruler from Yemen came to destroy the Ka’aba with a large army. The army was utterly destroyed by an attack of birds carrying 3 stones each. It is said that the stones were thrown with such velocity as to even penetrate armor. The army had prominently brought an elephant with them and it is to this incident that these ayaay refers to. Possible strategic lessons can be learned:
1.      That air assault in the form of Close Air Support (CAS) is a legitimate and effective form of warfare that must not be ignored.
2.      The importance of quantity, simplicity and effectiveness of the military operation; The birds merely carried with them three pebbles each.

Technologies we should pursue

Taught David making of armor / protect against each other)

It was We Who taught him the making of coats of mail for your benefit, to guard you from each other’s violence: will ye then be grateful? (21:80)


Armor is considered by Allah subhanhu ta’ala as worth mentioning as a blessing to mankind. This can perhaps be considered both in terms of the specific personal armor being spoken of here as well as armor in general, such as armored vehicles and tanks. In the former case, it is worth noting that personal armor is largely unused by Muslim militaries today while the West has started reusing some form of personal protection. Muslims should consider pursuing such armor and not only to imitate, but to do serious R&D in manufacturing cheap, large-scale armor protection for her soldiers.

Chain armor blessing

(Commanding) "Make thou coats of mail, balancing well the rings of chain armour, and work ye righteousness; for be sure I see (clearly) all that ye do." (34:11)


Chain armor is being spoken of here as a blessing. It is of interest to note that the intertwining of patterns such as that in chain armor is a technology that perhaps needs to be explored in greater detail. If chain armor is a blessing of Allah, there must be some meaningful use of it today in some form of technology and application.

Winds that scatter (broadcast)

By the (Winds) that scatter broadcast; (51:1)


The topic here is generally believed to mean the spread of dust or seeds that are dispersed but so too can information be considered a key element that needs to be dispersed. Thus, a second point to ponder over is how the wind can be used for communication or for propaganda in spreading information. This is a technology exploration issue. Can the wind be used as a means of communication / broadcast, and can these prove to be of worth in war?

Spread message using wind sail ships, airships, airplane, baloons

By the (Winds) Sent Forth one after another (to man's profit); (1) Which then blow violently in tempestuous Gusts, (2) And scatter (things) far and wide; (3) Then separate them, one from another, (4) Then spread abroad a Message, (5) Whether of Justification or of Warning― (6) Assuredly, what ye are promised must come to pass. (77:3-7)


Taking forward from the previous ayaat, we can perhaps consider multiple methods of utilizing the wind to spread messages. This can be an issue beyond war and may even be of commercial significance. A closer look at utilizing wind for generating electricity, travel, media and communication may be warranted, particularly as, over time, oil becomes a more precious commodity.

Sent down iron, material for mighty war

We sent aforetime our apostles with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men may stand forth in justice; and We sent down Iron, in which is (material for) mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help, Unseen, Him and His apostles: For Allah is Full of Strength, Exalted in Might (and able to enforce His Will). (57:25)


Truly, had we investigated this verse we would have been the pioneers of the industrial revolution. Iron and steel have been the fundamental building blocks of industrialization. No country can truly industrialize until it has a strong steel industry. Steel, a form of purified iron with a small admixture of other elements, has played an even more critical role in the weapons industry. Some form of iron or steel is used in virtually every form of weapon known to man. Furthermore, it is recently being discovered that while use of aluminum can lower the weight of various items, they do not have the qualities required to be as effective. Consider the American M-113 APCs (Armoured Personnel Carriers) and other aluminum hulled vehicles. The aluminum was seen as much lighter than steel and marginally inferior in protection. However, in reality, the aluminum hulls became death traps because aluminum would shatter and also catch fire. The US and her allies, after decades wasting lives and money have moved back to using steel for APCs rather than aluminum and in some cases various advanced composites. Steel is much cheaper to replace, repair and buy, thus enabling a greater quantity advantage. Steel and various iron-based alloys and composites should therefore be considered as a primary material for war, as indicated in the Quran. In sum, the metallurgy of steel should be carefully studied by Muslim metallurgists and defense industries.


Oppressed, hijrah

When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say: "In what (plight) were ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed were we in the earth." They say: "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (from evil)?" Such men will find their abode in Hell―what an evil refuge!― (4:97)

Change condition only if we change ourselves. Present intellectual slavery

"Because Allah will never change the Grace which He hath bestowed on a people until they change what is in their (own) souls: and verily Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things)." (8:53)
(see also 13:11)
For each (such person) there are (angels) in succession, before and behind him: they guard him by command of Allah. Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls). But when (once) Allah willeth a people's punishment, there can be no turning it back, nor will they find, besides Him any to protect. (11)

Dire consequences if we didn’t unite
The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: unless ye do this (protect each other) there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief. (8:73)

Punishment if you don’t fight, replace with another people

If ye go not forth He will afflict you with a painful doom, and will choose instead of you a folk other than you. Ye cannot harm Him at all. Allah is Able to do all things. (9:39)


But verily thy Lord― to those who leave their homes after trials and persecutions― and who thereafter strive and fight for the Faith and patiently persevere― thy Lord after all this is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (16:110)

To those who leave their homes in the cause of Allah, after suffering oppression― We will assuredly give a goodly home in this world: but truly the reward of the Hereafter will be greater if they only realize (this)! (16:41)

Strive / Fight

To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight) because they are wronged― and verily, Allah is Most powerful for their aid (22:39)

Unless ye go forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty, and put others in your place; but Him ye would not harm in the least. For Allah hath power over all things. (9:39)

10. O ye who believe! Shall I lead you to a bargain that will save you from a grievous Penalty?-
11. That ye believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that ye strive (your utmost) in the Cause of Allah, with your property and your persons: That will be best for you, if ye but knew!
12. He will forgive you your sins, and admit you to Gardens beneath which Rivers flow, and to beautiful mansions in Gardens of Eternity: that is indeed the Supreme Achievement.
13. And another (favour will He bestow,) which ye do love,- help from Allah and a speedy victory. So give the Glad Tidings to the Believers.  (61:10-13)

Be not weary and faint hearted, crying for peace
Be not weary and faint-hearted, crying for peace. When ye should be Uppermost: for Allah is with you and will never put you in loss for your (good) deeds. (47:35)

If society values evil / vices, then society will institutionalize the corruption of the soul and appoint leaders from the wicked. Example of Thamud.

The Thamud (people) rejected (their prophet) through their inordinate wrong-doing. (11) Behold the most wicked Man among them was deputed (for impiety). (91:11-12)

Sects / Divisions

That He may make the suggestions thrown in by Satan, but a trial for those in whose hearts is a disease and who are hardened of heart: verily the wrongdoers are in a schism far (from the Truth): (22:53)

The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah--that which We have sent by inspiration to thee--and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: namely, that ye should remain steadfast in Religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him). (42: 13)

As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in the least: their affair is with Allah. He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did. (6:159)

And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah.s favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided. (3:103)

Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear Signs: For them is a dreadful penalty,- (3:105)

Say: "What! Will ye instruct Allah about your religion? But Allah knows all that is in the heavens and on earth: He has full knowledge of all things. (49:16)

Promise of victory to present rulers

Allah has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion― the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace: `They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me.' If any do reject faith after this, they are rebellious and wicked. (24:55)

Do not take enemies as friends / protectors

(Allah has knowledge) of the (Prophet's) cry "O my Lord! truly these are a people who will not believe!" (88) But turn away from them, and say "Peace!" but soon shall they know! (43:88-89)

O ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors),- offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (on the contrary) driven out the Prophet and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in Allah your Lord! If ye have come out to strive in My Way and to seek My Good Pleasure, (take them not as friends), holding secret converse of love (and friendship) with them: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the Straight Path. (60:1)


It may be that Allah will ordain love between you and those of them with whom ye are at enmity. Allah is Mighty, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.       
Allah forbiddeth you not those who warred not against you on account of religion and drove you not out from your homes, that ye should show them kindness and deal justly with them. Lo! Allah loveth the just dealers.  
Allah forbiddeth you only those who warred against you on account of religion and have driven you out from your homes and helped to drive you out, that ye make friends of them. Whosoever maketh friends of them - (All) such are wrong-doers. (60:7-9)

If two parties of believers fight, stop or fight transgressor

If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel, make ye peace between them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other then fight ye (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with the command of Allah; but if it complies then make peace between them with justice and be fair: for Allah loves those who are fair (and just). (49:9)
No secret counsels except

O ye who believe! When ye hold secret counsel, do it not for iniquity and hostility, and disobedience to the Prophet; but do it for righteousness and self- restraint; and fear Allah, to Whom ye shall be brought back.
Secret counsels are only (inspired) by the Evil One, in order that he may cause grief to the Believers; but he cannot harm them in the least, except as Allah permits; and on Allah let the Believers put their trust.  (58:09-10)

Spiritual Aspects for the Soldier

Trust in Allah

Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector": and on Allah let the Believers put their trust. (9:51)

Importance of Remembrance of Allah

"Those who believe, and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah: for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find satisfaction. (13:28)

Except those who believe, work righteousness, engage much in the remembrance of Allah, and defend themselves after they are unjustly attacked. And soon will the unjust assailants know what vicissitudes their affairs will take! (26:227)

Praying at night, spiritual profit sustaining power
And pray in the small watches of the morning: (it would be) an additional prayer (or spiritual profit) for thee: soon will thy Lord raise thee to a station of Praise and Glory! (17:79)

Missed prayer and followed lusts

But after them there followed a posterity who missed prayers and followed after lusts: soon, then will they face Destruction― (19:59)

Evil ones appointed if withdraws from prayer

If anyone withdraws himself from remembrance of Most Gracious, We appoint for him an evil
one to be an intimate companion to him. (43:36)

Niggardly at expense of our souls
Behold, ye are those invited to spend (of your substance) in the way of Allah: but among you are some that are niggardly. But any who are niggardly are so at the expense of their own souls. But Allah is free of all wants, and it is ye that are needy. If ye turn back (from the Path), He will substitute in your stead another people; then they would not be like you! (47:38)
Prayer key to not being fretful and niggardly
Fretful when evil touches him; (20) And niggardly when good reaches him― (21) Not so those devoted to Prayer― (22) Those who remain steadfast to their prayer; (70:20-23)

Pray part of the night

And during part of the night, (also,) celebrate His praises, and (so likewise) after the postures of adoration. (50:40)

Righteous sleeping but little
They were in the habit of sleeping but little by night (51:17)

Rising half of night, less or more
Stand (to pray) by night, but not all night― (2) Half of it― or a little less (3) Or a little more; and recite the Qur'an in slow, measured rhythmic tones. (4) Soon shall We send down to thee a weighty Message. (5) Truly the rising by night is most potent for governing (the soul), and most suitable for (framing) the Word (of Prayer and Praise). (6) True, there is for thee by day prolonged occupation with ordinary duties: (73:2-7)

Glorify all night
And part of the night, prostrate thyself to Him; and glorify Him a long night through. (76:26)

Importance of prayer
What led you into Hell-Fire?" (42) They will say: "We were not of those who prayed;" (43) "Nor were we of those who fed the indigent;" (44) "But we used to talk vanities with vain talkers;" (74:42-45)

Failure and successes related to the soul
And its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right;― (8) Truly he succeeds that purifies it, (9) And he fails that corrupts it! (10) The Thamud (people) rejected (their prophet) through their inordinate wrong-doing. (91:9-11)

Importance of righteous deeds

Except such as believe and do righteous deeds: for they shall have a reward unfailing. (95:6)

Sleep to reassure you / purification to remove fear of Satan

When He made the slumber fall upon you as a reassurance from him and sent down water from the sky upon you, that thereby He might purify you, and remove from you the fear of Satan, and make strong your hearts and firm (your) feet thereby. (8:11)

Nature of Muslims
What Believers fight for
Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah and those who reject Faith fight in the cause of Evil: so fight ye against the friends, of Satan: feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan. (76) Hast thou not turned thy thought to those who were told to hold back their hands (from fight) but establish regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When (at length) the order for fighting was issued to them behold! a section of them feared men as―or even more than―they should have feared Allah: they said: "Our Lord! why hast Thou ordered us to fight? Wouldst Thou not grant us respite to our (natural) term, near (enough)?" Say: "Short is the enjoyment of this world: the Hereafter is the best for those who do right: never will ye be dealt with unjustly in the very least! (4:76-77)

Killing believers intentionally

If a man kills a Believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (forever): and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him. (4:93)

Doesn’t judge by revealed are kafirun (against secularism)

It was We who revealed the Torah (to Moses); therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the Prophet who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah's will, by the Rabbis and the Doctors of Law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear Me, and sell not My Signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers. (44) We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) wrong-doers. (5:44-45)

Replace people who turn back

O ye who believe! if any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him,― lowly with the Believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the Way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That is the Grace of Allah, which He will bestow on whom He pleaseth: and Allah encompasseth all and He knoweth all things. (5:54)

Misfortune because of our own selves

Whatever misfortune happens to you, is because of the things your hands have wrought, and for many (of them) He grants forgiveness. (42:30)

Not cowed

And those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and defend themselves. (42:39)

Heart is a faculty among
And We had firmly established them in a (prosperity and) power which We have not given to you (ye Quraish!) and We had endowed them with (faculties of) hearing, seeing, heart and intellect: but of no profit to them were their (faculties of) hearing, sight, and heart and intellect, when they went on rejecting the Signs of Allah; and they were (completely) encircled by that which they used to mock at! (46:26)

Test those who strive their utmost

And We shall try you until We test those among you who strive their utmost and persevere in patience; and We shall try your reported (mettle). (47:31)

Strong against unbelievers, compassionate to each other

Muhammad is the apostle of Allah. and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward. (48:29)

Sincere Muslims

Only those are Believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and have never since doubted, but have striven with their belongings and their persons in the Cause of Allah. Such are the sincere ones. (49:15)

Nature of the Enemy

Characteristics of those affected by the evil ones.
(26) Shall I inform you, (O people!) on whom it is that the Satans descend? (221) They descend on every lying wicked person (222) (Into whose ears) they pour hearsay vanities, and most of them are liars. (223) And the Poets― it is those straying in Evil, who follow them: (224) Seest thou not that they wander distracted in every valley?― (225) And that they say what they practise not? (226)

Unbelievers arrogant
(41:38) But if they (Unbelievers) are arrogant, (no matter): for in the presence of thy Lord are those who celebrate His praises by night and by day. And they never flag (nor feel themselves above it).
(46:20) And on the Day that the Unbelievers will be placed before the Fire, (it will be said to them): "Ye received your good things in the life of the world, and ye took your pleasure out of them: but today shall ye be recompensed with a Penalty of humiliation: for that ye were arrogant on earth without just cause, and that ye (ever) transgressed."

Divided through selfish envy
(42: 14) And they became divided only after knowledge reached them― through selfish envy as between themselves. Had it not been for a Word that went forth before from thy Lord, (tending) to a Term appointed, the matter would have been settled between them: but truly those, who have inherited the Book after them are in suspicious (disquieting) doubt concerning it.
(45:17) And We granted them clear Signs in affairs (of Religion): it was only after knowledge had been granted to them that they fell into schisms, through insolent envy among themselves. Verily thy Lord will judge between them on the Day of Judgement as to those matters in which they set up differences.

Takes their god as their own vain desires
(45:23) Then seest thou such a one as takes as his god his own vain desire? Allah has, knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his heart (and understanding), and put a cover on his sight. Who, then, will guide him after Allah (has withdrawn guidance)? Will ye not then receive admonition?


Freud comments on the western male occupation with size and power. The West seems constantly focused on “super weapons”. The German Tiger tank is an example of this flaw, so is the American Abrams tank, their “Star Wars” program, their Zumwalt Class destroyer (in fact, a cruiser), the F-35 program. These are but a few examples where a simple, effective solution is avoided in favor of “uber” weapons that cost a fortune and result in not enough quantity being produced, being maintenance nightmares because of their complexity, and being an overkill for their function. The F-22, while a truly superb machine has failed to be a replacement for the F-15s, which will have to soldier on for, as it seems, another 20 years, if not more. The F-35, over-engineered to such an extent that it will essentially be inferior in certain flight characteristics to the plane it is replacing is another white elephant. The costs have rocketed to such an extent that they are now posing a serious threat for the USAF’s viability as the supreme air arm of the world. The Zumwalt class destroyer is a massive warship that was to be the ultimate ship in the oceans with 32 originally planned. That order has now shrunk to a grand total of three ships. Truly, this appears to be a key weakness of the Western military psyche and, if we can avoid the same would garner us a military advantage, insh’Allah.

There is congruence with these views with an analysis done by former US Secretary of Defense Norman Augustine. Augustine also served as the CEO of Lockheed Martin. Augustine noted that the cost of an aircraft that replaces another is exponentially greater by 2-3 times the cost of the previous aircraft generation, even holding inflation to be constant. He proves this through historical analysis, as far back as WWII in a book titled Augustine’s Laws

Clearly, there is a breaking point at a certain stage where even the wealthiest countries cannot afford combat aircraft, causing a Schumpeterian opportunity for a rival civilization, insh’Allah ours. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions points to exactly such a possibility within a military tactic – technology combination; as the evolutionary phase comes to a technology saturated end, a revolutionary breaking point emerges that can upset the traditional power distribution.

Punish those with evil opinion of

And that He may punish the Hypocrites men and women, and the Polytheists, men and women, who imagine an evil opinion of Allah. On them is a round of Evil: the Wrath of Allah is on them: He has cursed them and got Hell ready for them: and evil is it for a destination. (48:6)

Punishment of war against:
The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.― (33) Except for those who repent before they fall into your power: in that case, know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (5:33-34)

Unbeliever’s allies will abandon them when facing reverses (American / Israeli allies will abandon her)

If the Unbelievers should fight you they would certainly turn their backs; then would they find neither protector nor helper. (48:22)

Their allies will deceive them

(Their allies deceived them), like the Evil One, when he says to man, "Deny Allah.: but when (man) denies Allah, (the Evil One) says, "I am free of thee: I do fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!" (59:16)
(Related to hypocrites but fits here)

Strategic mistakes will be made, by the enemy with the Grace of Allah

It is He Who got out the Unbelievers among the People of the Book from their homes at the first gathering (of the forces). Little did ye think that they would get out: And they thought that their fortresses would defend them from Allah. But the (Wrath of) Allah came to them from quarters from which they little expected (it), and cast terror into their hearts, so that they destroyed their dwellings by their own hands and the hands of the Believers, take warning, then, O ye with eyes (to see)! (59:2)

Plotting and planning, grant respite (be patient?)

As for them, they are but plotting a scheme, (15) And I am planning a scheme. (16) Therefore grant a delay to the unbelievers: give respite to them gently (for a while). (86:15-17)

Enemy cut off

To thee have We granted the Fount (Of Abundance). (1) Therefore to thy Lord turn in Prayer and Sacrifice. (2) For he who hateth thee He will be cut off (from Future Hope). (108:1-3)
Friendship, Kindness, Possible

It may be that Allah will grant love (and friendship) between you and those whom ye (now) hold as enemies. For Allah has power (over all things); And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
8. Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just.
9. Allah only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong. (60:7-9)


Truly if the Hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who stir up sedition in the City, desist not, We shall certainly stir thee up against them: then will they not be able to stay in it as thy neighbours for any length of time: (60) They shall have a curse on them: wherever they are found, they shall be seized and slain (without mercy). (61) (Such was) the practice (approved) of Allah among those who lived aforetime: no change wilt thou find in the practice (approved) of Allah. (33:60-62)

They have made their oaths a screen (for their misdeeds): thus they obstruct (men) from the Path of Allah. truly evil are their deeds.   
That is because they believed, then they rejected Faith: So a seal was set on their hearts: therefore they understand not. (63:2-3)

Those who turn to the enemies are
Turnest thou not thy attention to those who turn (in friendship) to such as have the Wrath of Allah upon them? They are neither of you nor of them, and they swear to falsehood knowingly.
15. Allah has prepared for them a severe Penalty: evil indeed are their deeds.
16. They have made their oaths a screen (for their misdeeds): thus they obstruct (men) from the Path of Allah. therefore shall they have a humiliating Penalty.
17. Of no profit whatever to them, against Allah, will be their riches nor their sons: they will be Companions of the Fire, to dwell therein (for aye)!  (58:14-17)

Hypocrites. We will know them by tone of their speech

Had We so willed, We could have shown them up to thee and thou shouldst have known them by their marks: but surely thou wilt know them by the tone of their speech! And Allah knows all that ye do. (47:30)

Hypocrites incompetent at war?

Hast thou not observed the Hypocrites say to their misbelieving brethren among the People of the Book? - "If ye are expelled, we too will go out with you, and we will never hearken to any one in your affair; and if ye are attacked (in fight) we will help you". But Allah is witness that they are indeed liars.
If they are expelled, never will they go out with them; and if they are attacked (in fight), they will never help them; and if they do help them, they will turn their backs; so they will receive no help. (59:11-12)

Devoid of understanding (perhaps we need to look in the mirror too)

Of a truth ye are stronger (than they) because of the terror in their hearts, (sent) by Allah. This is because they are men devoid of understanding. (59:13)

Hypocrites Fight Defensively

They will not fight you (even) together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls. Strong is their fighting (spirit) amongst themselves: thou wouldst think they were united, but their hearts are divided: that is because they are a people devoid of wisdom. (59:14)
Fighting is mentioned, people run away

Those who believe say "Why is not a Surah sent down (for us)?" But when a Surah of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death: but more fitting for them― (47:20)

Hypocrites tried to boycott Muslims

They are the ones who say "Spend nothing on those who are with Allah's Messenger, to the end that they may disperse (and quit Madinah). But to Allah belong the treasures of the heavens and the earth; but the Hypocrites understand not. (63:7)

Wrath of Allah (for hypocrites and some disbelievers?)

O ye who believe! Turn not (for friendship) to people on whom is the Wrath of Allah, of the Hereafter they are already in despair, just as the Unbelievers are in despair about those (buried) in graves. (60:13)

Vision Without Glasses


Anonymous said...

Impressive analysis and it is a shame that many muslim scholars are not using the practicality of the Quran for alot of fields.

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